The Agile Manifesto
July 21st 2021
Agile Manifesto (for software development)
We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value:
Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan
That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
(Note: create anchor links to authors’ bios – bellow)
The 12 Principles behind the Agile Manifesto:
Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.
Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
Businesspeople and developers must work together daily throughout the project.
Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need and trust them to get the job done.
The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
Working software is the primary measure of progress.
Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.
Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential.
The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
Authors: The Agile Manifesto:
Mike Beedle is the founder and CEO of e-Architects Inc., a consulting company that specializes in application development using distributed objects and Internet technologies. Despite Mike's business demands, he has remained billing as an on-the-trenches consultant where he applies Scrum and XP together through XBreed. Mike was privileged to be an early adopter of the Scrum method and has introduced Scrum to 7 organizations since the mid-90's. Mike's specialty is to coach companies in the creation of large-scale reusable architectures involving many application teams. His record so far is 17 applications reusing the same components such as: workflows, visual components, transactions, business objects and architectural services. Mike has published in several areas including object technology, patterns, components, frameworks, software development, programming languages, reusability, workflow, BPR, and Physics. He has co-organized several workshops on objects, patterns, components, and software development through the last decade. He is co-author of Scrum, Agile Software Development with Ken Schwaber (Prentice Hall, fall 2001), a provocative book that assumes software development is more like new product development than the manufacturing-like processes that the software industry has used for the last 20 years.
Arie van Bennekum has been actively involved in DSDM and the DSDM Consortium since 1997. Before that he had been working with Rapid Application Development. His passion for agile methods is based on delivering to customers what they really need in a way that really suits end- users and business. Because facilitated sessions are very important within the DSDM method and his passion for group processes and human behavior, he is very often involved in projects as facilitator and coach. At this moment in time, he is a member of the board of DSDM Consortium Benelux and accredited as a DSDM- practitioner, DSDM-trainer, DSDM Consultant and IAF Certified Professional Facilitator (CPF).
Alistair Cockburn, founder of Humans and Technology, is known for his extensive interviews of project teams. These interviews, together with his active participation on live projects, form the basis for his methodology designs: light but sufficient, and self-evolving. Alistair's work in the 1990s grew into the Crystal family of agile methodologies. Alistair and Jim Highsmith are now working together to evolve Crystal and the Adaptive ideas into recommendations for creating agile software development ecosystems, the meeting of generic methodology with a project team's specific situation. Alistair and Jim are co-sponsoring the Agile Software Development book series to publish techniques for personal growth and examples of agile methodologies that have been used successfully.
Ward Cunningham is a founder of Cunningham & Cunningham, Inc. He has also served as Director of R&D at Wyatt Software and as Principal Engineer in the Tektronix Computer Research Laboratory before that. Ward is well known for his contributions to the developing practice of object-oriented programming, the variation called Extreme Programming, and the communities hosted by his WikiWikiWeb. He is active with the Hillside Group and has served as program chair of the Pattern Languages of Programs conference which it sponsors. Ward created the CRC design method which helps teams find core objects for their programs. Ward has written for PLoP, JOOP and OOPSLA on Patterns, Objects, CRC and related topics.
Martin Fowler is the Chief Scientist for Thoughtworks, an application development and consulting company. He's been involved for over a decade in using object-oriented techniques for information systems. Although his primary interest has been in software design, he's never been able to avoid software process and has been interested in approaches that allow methodology to fit people rather than the other way around. He's the author of Analysis Patterns, UML Distilled, Refactoring, and Planning Extreme Programming.
James Grenning, Wingman Software - James trains, coaches and consults worldwide. With more than three decades of software development experience, both technical and managerial, James brings knowledge, skill, and creativity to software development teams and their management. As his professional roots are in embedded software, James’ mission is to bring state-of-the-art technical and management practices to embedded development teams. He is the author of Test-Driven Development for Embedded C. He is a co-author of CppUTest, a popular unit test harness for embedded C and C++. He invented Planning Poker, an estimating technique used around the world, and participated in the creation of the Manifesto for Agile Software Development.
Jim Highsmith is the primary developer of the "Adaptive Software Development" Agile Method and author of a book by the same name. He has spoken (or scheduled to speak) about Adaptive Development and other Agile Methods at conferences such as OOPSLA, Cutter Summit, SD 2001, XP2001 & Flexible Processes, Project World, and XP Universe. Jim co-authored, with Martin Fowler, "The Agile Manifesto" article in the August 2001 issue of "Software Development" magazine and has several additional "Agile" articles in the works. Jim and Alistair Cockburn are working to combine ASD, and Crystal methods and they are also co-editors of a new Addison-Wesley book series on Agile Software Development. Jim is working on a book on all the Agile Methods to be published in 2002.
Andrew Hunt is a partner in The Pragmatic Programmers, and co-author of the best-selling book The Pragmatic Programmer: From Journeyman to Master, the new Programming Ruby, and various articles. Between writing, speaking engagements, woodworking and playing the piano, Andy finds time for his consulting business specializing in agile software development. Andy has been writing software professionally since the early 80's across diverse industries such as telecommunications, banking, financial services, utilities, medical imaging, graphic arts, and Internet services. Andy is based in Raleigh NC and, with co-author Dave Thomas, is known for bringing method-independent, pragmatic best practices to software development projects throughout the U.S. He is President of the RTP chapter of the Independent Computer Consultant's Association and a member of the ACM and IEEE.
Ron Jeffries is the proprietor of XProgramming.com, a consultant with Object Mentor, and the author (with Ann Anderson and Chet Hendrickson) of Extreme Programming Installed. Ron was the first Extreme Programming coach and is a prolific contributor to the XP-related Internet groups, and a frequent speaker at software conferences.
Jon Kern is passionate about helping clients succeed in delivering business value through software development efforts. His varied career has spanned jet engine R&D through centrifuge-based flight simulators, to being an object-oriented evangelist through the 90s beginning with C++ and moving to Java. He first published his lightweight iterative development methodology in (strangely enough) developers guides for Lotus Notes 4.5 and 5.0. He was motivated heavily by his friend Peter Coad's mantra to deliver "frequent, tangible, working results." He put his techniques to work on DoD projects, and then at his own company (Lightship, Inc.). In 1999, he joined Peter Coad for the startup of TogetherSoft, where he created the professional mentor group, and guided product development. Jon was a co-author of Java Design and worked with Peter and Jeff De Luca (the primary contributor to FDD) to help shape the chapter on Feature-Driven Development (FDD) in Java Modeling in Color with UML. Jon constantly seeks better ways for teams to accomplish their goals, from a technology perspective and from a process and methodology perspective. In Jon's words, Pragmatic MDA via Compuware's OptimalJ (http://www.optimalj.com) represents an exciting, revolutionary advancement in having an environment that promotes best practices, solid architecture, agile development, quality by design (not accident), and laser-like focus on delivering business value through strategic use of IT resources. You can find Jon blogging at http://blogs.compuware.com/cs/blogs/jkern/
Brian Marick is a programmer and software testing consultant. He came to Snowbird as a representative of a part of the software testing community that's been developing a testing style emphasizing exploration, lessened reliance on documentation, increased acceptance of change, and the notion that a project is an ongoing conversation about quality. He is beginning an exploration of what "Agile Testing" might mean, and how it fits in with Agile Development, in the Agile Testing section of his web page.
Robert C. Martin has been a software professional since 1970. He is president and founder of Object Mentor Inc. a firm of highly experienced consultants who offer XP and agile process consulting, software design consulting, training, and development services to major corporations around the world. In 1995 he authored the best-selling book: Designing Object Oriented C++ Applications using the Booch Method, published by Prentice Hall. In 1997 he was chief editor of the book: Pattern Languages of Program Design 3, published by Addison Wesley. In 1999 he was the editor of "More C++ Gems" published by Cambridge Press. He is co-author of "XP in Practice", James Newkirk, and Robert C. Martin, Addison Wesley, 2001. He is currently working on "Principles, Patterns, and Practices of Agile Software Development" to be published by Prentice Hall in 2002. From 1996 to 1999 he was the editor-in-chief of the C++ Report. He has published dozens of articles in various trade journals and is a regular speaker at international conferences and trade shows.
Steve Mellor received a BA in computer science from the University of Essex in 1974, and started working at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland as a programmer in BCPL. In 1977 he became software engineer at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and in 1982 consultant at Yourdon, Inc. At Yourdon in cooperation with Paul Ward they developed the Ward–Mellor method and published the book-series Structured Development for Real Time Systems in 1985. Together with Sally Shlaer he founded Project Technology in 1985. That company was acquired by Mentor Graphics in 2004. Mellor stayed as chief scientist of the Embedded Systems Division at Mentor Graphics for another two years and is self-employed since 2006. Since 1998 Mellor has contributed to the Object Management Group, chairing the consortium that added executable actions to the UML, and the specification of model-driven architecture (MDA). He is also chairing the advisory board of the IEEE Software magazine. Since 2013, Mellor has served as CTO for the Industrial Internet Consortium.
Ken Schwaber is president of Advanced Development Methods (ADM), a company dedicated to improving the software development practice. He is an experienced software developer, product manager, and industry consultant. Schwaber initiated the process management product revolution of the early 1990's and also worked with Jeff Sutherland to formulate the initial versions of the Scrum development process. Over the last five years he has formalized Scrum, helped many organizations successfully deploy products and systems using Scrum, and co-authored Scrum, Agile Software Development with Mike Beedle (Prentice Hall, fall 2001).
Jeff Sutherland is Chief Technology Officer of PatientKeeper, an MIT based startup providing mobile/wireless applications to clinicians. He has been CTO or VP of Engineering in nine software technology companies and introduced improved agile development processes to each of them. His work on reusable business object components through the Object Management Group and the OOPSLA Business Object Workshop during the last decade has led to new database products, software development environments, CASE/OOAD tools, as well as vertical applications in multiple industries. As founder and VP of Engineering at Individual Inc. he launched personal NewsPage. As the former Senior VP of Engineering and CTO of IDX Systems, he developed new Internet applications for healthcare. His work on large component-based software projects has led to innovations in banking, insurance, library systems, aerospace, airline and aircraft leasing, nuclear engineering, and robotics. As an inventor of the SCRUM development process, his experience in organizational development has repeatedly enabled high-octane development teams to deliver world-class software products. Learn more about Jeff.
Dave Thomas believes that the heart of a project is not the methodology but the people. Members of the team need to be technically competent, motivated, and aligned. This focus on the individual was one of the reasons he co-authored The Pragmatic Programmer. But the technical side is not enough. Each team member must also be involved: involved in their work, involved in their team, and involved in their organization. Dave and Andy are now working on ways to help individuals make the transition to Agile